[excerpt: page 82]
Dill: Dr. Unna, you have mentioned toxic compounds made in France by Dr. Funk. Do you know the LDSO of these compounds?
Or. Dill: Dr. Unna, you have mentioned toxic compounds made in France by Dr. Funk. Do you know the LDSO of these compounds?
flr. Schwab: I’d like to ask Dr. Unna if he knows anything about the epidemic, so—called myasthenia which occurred during the German occupation of France from smoking of substitute tobacco. It was overcome by prostigmine and stopped as soon as they stopped smoking these leaves.
Dr. Unna: No, but I have heard that some organism was cultured from the saliva of these tobacco workers, and the idea was that this organism produced some toxin which was responsible for the myasthenia—like disease. I haven’t been able to find anyone who actually had the organism .which may be responsible.
Dr. Marrazzi: I wasn’t sure, Dr. Unna, whether, In making the correlation between the anticurare action of the 3—hydroxy.-phenyl—alkyl—anunonlum and Its anticholinesterase action, you meant to say that the anticurare action was riot an anticholinesterase action or merely meant to say that they are related.
Dr. Unna: Oh, I was very careful to say that the two correlate as well as any two biological phenomena can correlate under these experimental conditions, and I would certainly like to draw the conclusion that the anticurare effect arises from the sparing of Ach.
Chemical Corps Medical Laboratories Special Report No. 59
[excerpt: page 13-17]
Much of this consists of bound journals. A current subscription list is maintained for some 300 journals, American and foreign. In addition, a document library of over 25,WQ unpublished reports provides unusual literature search facilities in this vital area. Trained information specialistS provide assistance to the staff in collecting data from this source. A large and well-stocked animal colony houses several thousand laboratory animals. The chief species are mice, rats, guinea pigs, cats, dogs, pigeons goats and monkeys. Modern methods of maintaining the health of these animals, and efficiency in providing suitable animals needed in the research program, have been an important factor in the success of the laboratories. Equally important as the animal supply is the adequate instrumentation needed in modern biological research. Electronic equipment has to be kept in working order, special types of laboratory furniture and cages must be devised and constructed, autopsy tables need to be built. A complicated laboratory such as the climatic facility requires skilled VI. The Research Program Research carried on at Chemical Corps Medical Laboratories is an important part of a national program involving many military and non— military government agencies as well as numerous industrial and university research groups, all of which have a vital interest in the hazards associated with the use of toxic chemicals. In addition to the chemical warfare agents these che~ica1s include insecticides, lubricants, pro- pellant fuels and oxidizers, fire extinguishants and other compounds which present potential hazards. The pattern of the research program reflects the mission of Medical Laboratories as described on page 2. Exchange of information on toxic chemicals is maintained with all other agencies working on similar problems, and results of Medical Labo- ratories’ research are distributed promptly to other agencies on a ‘need- to—know” basis. There is a close correlation between the work done at Medical Laboratories and that carried out under the supervision of the Surgeon General, at the Army Medical Research Laboratory, in the Ordnance and Quartermaster Corps, the Corps of Engineers, and at the various arsenals and proving grounds. Close liaison is maintained with the office of the Air Surgeon, the School of Aviation Medicine, the Arctic Aero Medi- cal Laboratory and the Air Research and Development Conzmand. Similar liaison exists with the Office of Naval Research, Naval Research Labo- ratory, Naval Ordnance, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, and other bureaus of the Navy which have an interest in poisoning by toxic chemicals. The results of the Medical Laboratories’ research program carried on by permanent staff members (civilian and military) are published as Medical Laboratories Besearch Reports (MLSR’s). Each report represents termination of a significant task or test program in a given project. During 1953 eighty such reports were published and distributed to inter- ested military and civilian agencies. Results of conferences, literature searches, and general activities are published as the occasion warrants, as Medical Laboratories Special Reports (MLSR's). About 30 of these ap- peared in 1953. Thus the publication program for a calendar year is approximately 120 reports. 14 A fundamental prerequisite for success of Medical Laboratories’ re- search is continuous contact with civilian scientists who are authorities in specialized areas of the biological, biochemical and chemical sciences. Like many other government research organizations, Medical Laboratories makes use of specially trained scientists and unique university and in— dustrial laboratories in order to enlarge its own research program eco- nomically and effectively. Some of this is accomplished by using these scientists as consultants. Other phases of research are assigned to “con— tractors”; in this way the Chemical Corps can accelerate such aspects of its program as may be necessary. The five—year cumulative funding of the medical Laboratories contract program in effect in 1953 amounted to approxi mateely $1,300,000.00; this wast disbursed through contracts to the following:
Batelle Memorial Institute (Dr. Willians)
Brooklyn Polytechnic Insti tute (Dr. Gregor)
Columbia University Or. Slanetz)
Goodrich (B.F.) Company Wr. Stevens)
Harvard University (Drs. Radford, Morris)— 2 contracts h]azleton Laboratories a3r. Watts)
Indiana University (Drs. Thacher, Robinson) —2 contracts
Johns Hopkins University (flrs. Dethier, Grob,Richter) - 3 contracts
Lovelace Foundation (Dr. Reif)
Massachusetts General Hospital (Dr. Frazier)
Medical College of South Carolina (Dr. Walton)
Medical College of Virginia Or. Haag)
National Opinion Research Center (Dr. Marks)
Southern Research Institute (Drs. Montgomery, Skipper) - 2 contracts Tufts College (Dr. Roeder)
University of Colorado, Medical School (Dr. Holmes)
University of Delaware (Dr. Clark) University of Florida (Dr. Lauter)
University of Illinois (Drs. Gordon, Prosser) — 2 contracts
University of Maryland (Drs. Greenhill, Lindenberg — 2 contracts
University of Michigan (Dr. Seevers) -
University of Pennsylvania Wrs. Detweiler, Comroe) - 2 contracts 15
University of Pittsburgh (DrS. Buchsbaum, Hill)—2 contracts
University of Utah (Dr. sager)
University of Virginia (Dr. Chanutin)
University of Wisconsin (Dr. Busse)
New York Psychiatric Institute
(Dr. Hoch) Each contractor reports at periodic intervals to Medical Laboratories Such reports as are of widespread interest are published as Medical Labo— -c ratories’ Contract Reports (MLCR"s) and distributed to all interested agencies. Contacts with the scientific world are also maintained by exchange of information through articles in scientific journals, participation in national meetings of professional societies, and dissemination of informa tion, within the restrictions of security, to all persons interested in the hazards resulting from the use of toxic chemicals. Some of this is carried out directly, some through such cooperating agencies as the National - Research Council, National Institutes of Health, and the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The net result, however, is that the American citizen benefits directly, as well as indirectly, from Medical Laboratories resea The current research program can be pictured as an advance on five scientific fronts. (1) In order to be able to devise protection against , exposure to toxic chemicals, and treafluent for cases of poisoning by thern,~~ the tn~Lani~rn ~ action of the particular compound must be known. (2) Information gained on how the chemical affects the living body enables other scientists to devise protection against poisoning by toxic chemicals In cases of accidental exposure without such protection, or possible exposure 0f a military or civilian population to chemical warfare agents, £irst ñid. and treatment for exposure to toxic chemicals can be formulated on the basis 16 C-> of knowlwdge gained in mechanism of action studies. (1) Evaluation of wound ballistics and body armor is another front on which Medical Labo ratories research makes significant contributions. (5) In the course C) of the foregoing programmatic research, much basic and incidental scien tific knowledge is acquired; thus contributions SQ nnJiiL welfare becomes another front, not an end in itself but a “bonus return” to the taxpayer on money spent for mi1itary~sponsored research. This five—fold aspect of Medical Laboratories research can be outlined in the following table.